2020, Volume 8
2019, Volume 7
2018, Volume 6
2017, Volume 5
2016, Volume 4
2015, Volume 3
2014, Volume 2
2013, Volume 1

Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2020, Page: 1-8
HIV Related Stigma Among People Living with HIV and AIDS in Limbe Health District, Cameroon
Ngwi Constance Tamungang, Department of Public Health & Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Nde Fon Peter, Department of Public Health & Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Ndeso x Fon Peter, Department of Nursing and Allied Health science, St Monica University, Buea, Cameroon
Mary Bi Suh Atanga, Department of Nursing/Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon
Received: Dec. 6, 2018;       Accepted: Dec. 25, 2018;       Published: Mar. 23, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.20200801.11      View  255      Downloads  141
The background to thr article is that, the Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) - related stigma tends to create a vicious cycle of fear, ignorance, mistrust, misinformation, denial and self-isolation, which tend to further spread the virus because stigma affects the way people will take their treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the forms of stigma, and determine the role of stigma and other factors among HIV and the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients on Anti- Retroviral Therapy (ART) in Limbe Health District. For the method, a cross-sectional design with a sample size of 389 was used. Interviewer- administered questionnaire was used to collect data from HIV and AIDS patients belonging to HIV support groups in Limbe Health District found at the treatment centre of the Limbe Regional Hospital. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, forms of stigma and factors in association. Data was analyzed using STATA version 7.0. Results have shown that in all, stigma was experienced by 76.7% respondents. Among this group, self-stigma was experienced by 95% of the respondents while 28% experienced external stigma. Majority of respondents (92.8%) admitted it was not easy to disclose their status, 7.2% felt dirty while 20.05% felt guilty of contracting HIV. Association of overall stigma with adherence to treatment showed no statistical significance, however respondents who did not experience self-stigma were more adherent (76.9%) than those who experienced overall stigma (71.01%). It can thus be concluded that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) belonging to HIV support groups in LHD experienced both internalized and external stigma, with the former experienced by almost all the respondents. Although stigma was not significantly associated with adherence to treatment, the very high level of internalized stigma warrants the implementation of stigma reduction measures.
HIV/AIDS, Stigma Experiences, Effects
To cite this article
Ngwi Constance Tamungang, Nde Fon Peter, Ndeso x Fon Peter, Mary Bi Suh Atanga, HIV Related Stigma Among People Living with HIV and AIDS in Limbe Health District, Cameroon, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20200801.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sekoni AO, Obidike OR, Balogun MR. Stigma, medication adherence and coping mechanism among people living with HIV attending General Hospital, Lagos Island, Nigeria. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2012. Available from.
National AIDS Commission, Cameroon (NACC). The impact of HIV and AIDS in Cameroon through 2020. National AIDS Control Committee Cameroon; 2010.
Aggleton, Peter, Wood, Kate, Malcolm, Anne. HIV-related stigma, discrimination and human rights violations. Case studies of successful progammees. UNAIDS; 2005.
Nam SL, Fielding K, Avalos A, Dickinson D, Gaolathe T, Geissler PW. The relationship of acceptance or denial of HIV-status to antiretroviral adherence among adult HIV patients in urban Botswana. SocSci Med 1982. 2008; 67 (2): 301–10.
Goffman E. Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Garden City NY: Anchor Books; 1963.
Charles B, Jeyaseelan L, Pandian AK, Sam AE, Thenmozhi M, Jayaseelan V. Association between stigma, depression and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in South India – a community based cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12 (1): 463.
Laura Nyblade. Can we measure HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination? Current knowledge about quantifying stigma in developing countries. USAID; 2006.
Mbuagbaw L, Thabane L, Ongolo-Zogo P, Yondo D, Noorduyn S, Smieja M, et al. Trends and determining factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cameroon: a systematic review and analysis of the CAMPS trial. AIDS Res Ther. 2012; 9 (1): 1–10.
Jacobi CA, Atanga PNJI, Bin LK, Mbome VN, Akam W, Bogner JR, et al. HIV/AIDS-related stigma felt by people living with HIV from Buea, Cameroon. AIDS Care. 2013; 25 (2): 173–80.
Stangl AL, Grossman CI. Global Action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013
Deribew A, HaileMichael Y, Tesfaye M, Desalegn D, Wogi A, Daba S. The synergy between TB and HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2010; 3 (1): 249.
Pharris A, Hoa NP, Tishelman C, Marrone G, Chuc NTK, Brugha R, et al. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11 (1): 705.
Reynolds, Lucy. HIV-related stigma Measures and Measurement Tools: Consultation with PLHIV to contribute to the development of common indicators. UNAIDS; 2010.
WHO. HIV Testing, Treatment and Prevention: Generic Tools for Operational Research. Malta: WHO; 2009.
Yuri Sasaki. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), self-stigma and depression among people living with HIV (PLWH) in rural Zambia. [Japan]: university of Tokyo; 2012.
Okoli CI, Cleary SM. Socioeconomic status and barriers to the use of free antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria. Afr J AIDS Res. 2011. Available from:
Sayles JN, Wong MD, Kinsler JJ, Martins D, Cunningham WE. The Association of Stigma with Self-Reported Access to Medical Care and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Persons Living with HIV/AIDS. J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 24 (10): 1101–8.
Martinez J, Harper G, Carleton RA, Hosek S, Bojan K, Glum G, et al. The Impact of Stigma on Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Adolescent and Young Adult Females and the Moderating Effects of Coping and Satisfaction with Health Care. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2012; 26 (2): 108–15.
Katz IT, Ryu AE, Onuegbu AG, Psaros C, Weiser SD, Bangsberg DR, et al. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3833107/
Browse journals by subject